##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Kenneth A Schmidt

Abstract

Most modern research in social alienation was based upon the factors identified by Seeman (1959, 1967, 1971, 1975, and 1983) as powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, estrangement, and cultural estrangement. Postmodernism reevaluated and redefined the factors within the postmodern paradigm. It was observed neither set of definitions included a spiritual component. It was proposed a redefinition of the self, as individual and personality, within the Neo-Thomist position of Jacques Maritain could assist researchers of social alienation in a deeper understanding of the alienational factors of powerlessness and meaninglessness.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

##article.references##
Allard, J. (1982). Education for freedom: The philosophy of education of Jacques Maritain. (R. C. Nelson, Trans.). South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame.

Alexander, P. A. & Winne, P. H. (2006). Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Annas, J. (1993). The morality of happiness. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Appignanesi, R. (2006). Introducing existentialism (3rd ed.). Thriplow, Cambridge, U.K.: Icon Books.

Arendt, H. (1960). What is authority? In Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought. New York: Penguin.

Aristotle. (1984). Physics. (R. P. Hardie & R. K. Gaye, Trans.). Vol. 1 of Complete Works: the Revised Oxford Translation. Ed. Jonathan Barnes (Ed.). 2 Vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.

Aristotle. (2009). Nichomachean ethics. (W.D. Ross, Trans.). Retrieved May 3, 2011 from http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.html.

Aquinas. (n.d.). Questiones Disputatae de Veritate. Retrieved July 23, 2011 from http://dhspriory.org/thomas/QDdeVer24.htm.

Aquinas (1947). Summa Theologica. (Fathers of the English Dominican Province, Trans.). Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://dhspriory.org/thomas/summa/index.html

Aquinas, T. (1965). On Being and Essence. (J. Kenny, Trans.).Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://dhspriory.org/thomas/DeEnte& Essentia.htm.

Aquinas. (1968). On being and essence. 2nd ed. (Translated by Armand Maurer) Toronto, Canada: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies

Bao, Y., Zhou, K. Z. and Zhou, N. (2006). Social alienation in a transitional economy: Antecedents and impact on attitude toward social reform Journal of Business Research 59(9), 990-998.

Beebee, H. (2006). Hume on causation. New York: Routledge. Berger, P. (1990). The sacred canopy: Elements of a sociological theory of religion. N.Y: Random.

Bloom, H. & Hobby, B. (2009). Bloom’s literary themes: Alienation. N.Y: Infobase Bloom, P. (2004).

Descartes’ baby: How the science of child development explains what makes us human. New York: Basic Books.

Blum, P. R. (2003). Jacques Maritain against modern pseudo-humanism. Atti del Congresso Tomista Internazionale su l’Umanesimo Cristiano nel III Millennio: La Prospettiva di Tommaso d’Aquino, 21-25 Settembre 2003, Vatican City (Pontificia Academia Sancti Thomae Aquinatis), 780-791. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from http://e-aquinas.net/pdf/blum.pdf.

Brooks, J.S., Hughes, R.M., & Brooks, M.C. (2008). Fear and trembling in the American high school: Educational reform and teacher alienation. Educational Policy 22 (1), 45-62.

Chicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). (2006). Developmental Psychopathology. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.

DeBlock, A. & Adriaens, P. R. (2011). Maladapting minds: Philosophy, psychiatry, and evolutionary theory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Deleuze, G. (2006). Nietzsche and philosophy. New York: Columbia. Derksen, M. (n.d.) Causality and the Metaphysics of Change in Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. Retrieved August 27, 2011 from: http://www.catholicapologetics.info/catholicteaching/philosophy/cause.htm

Durkheim, E. (1964). The Division of Labor in Society. (G. Simpson, Trans.). New York: Free Press

Durkheim, E. (1974). Sociology and Philosophy. (D. F. Pocock, Trans.). New York: Free Press.

Durkheim, E. (1979). Suicide. (J. A. Spaulding & G. Simpson, G, Trans.). New York: The Free Press

Durkheim, E. (1983). Professional Ethics and Civic Morals( C. Brookfield, Trans). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Fruchaud, L. (2005). Le thomisme face aux droits de l’homme. DEA Dissertation, University of Paris, France. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from http://www.thomasaquin.net/Pages/Droits_Homme/Droits_Homme02.pdf

Gergen, K.G. (1996) 'Postmodern culture and the revisioning of alienation', in Geyer, F. (Ed.) Alienation, ethnicity, and postmodernism, London: Greenwood.

Gest, J. & Seiferling, M. (2011). Democracy is what people make of it: Perceptive differences between the engaged and the alienated. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from http://www.justingest.com/pdfs/ Gest%20and%20Seiferling% 20-%201%20March%202011.pdf

Geyer, F. (1994) "Alienation, Participation and Increasing Societal Complexity", Kybernetes 23 (2), 10–34.

Geyer, F. (1996) Alienation, ethnicity, and postmodernism. London: Greenwood Press

Gissurarson, H.H. (2002). "Authority." The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought.

Outhwaite, William (Ed). Blackwell Reference Online. Retrieved August 29, 2011 from

Gouldner,A.W. (1980). The two Marxisms. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Guyer, P. (Ed.). (1998). Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays. Lantham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Homer. (2009) The Iliad. R.W. Crowell (Ed). http://www.ancientgreekonline.com/Iliad/IliadBook1.htm

Hudson, D. W. & Mancini, M. J. (1987).Understanding Maritain: Philosopher and friend. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.

James, W. (1909). The meaning of truth. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

James, W. (1981). Pragmatism. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.

Jaspers, K. (1952). Existentialism and humanism: Three essays (H. E. Fischer, Ed.; E. B. Ashton, Trans.). New York, NY: Russell F. Moore.

John Paul II. (1981). Laborem exercens: On human work on the ninetieth anniversary of the Rerum Novarum. Retrieved August 5, 2011 from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_j pii_enc_14091981_laborem-exercens_en.html

Jones, W. T. (1970). A History of Western Philosophy, Vol. I, The classical mind, 2d ed. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Kant, I. (1965). Immanuel Kant's critique of pure reason (N. K. Smith, Trans.). New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.

Kanungo, R. N. (1979). The concepts of alienation and involvement revisited. Psychological Bulletin, 86(1), 119-138.

Kanungo, R. N. (1982). Work alienation: An integrative approach. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers.

Kilminster, R. (2002). "Alienation." The Blackwell dictionary of modern social thought. Outhwaite, W. (Ed). Retrieved September 12, 2009, from
Kraut, R. (2010), "Aristotle's Ethics", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy E.N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/ archives/sum2010/entries/aristotle-ethics/.

Lacourse, E., Villeneuve, M., & Claes, M. (2003). Theoretical structure of adolescent alienation: A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Adolescence, 38(152), 639+. Retrieved August 19, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007986828

Langman, L. & Kalekin-Fishman, D. (Eds.) 2006. The evolution of alienation: Trauma, promise, and the millennium. Lanham, MD: The Rowman & Littlefield.

Maritain, J. (1938). True humanism. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91321583

Maritain, J. (1940). Scholasticism and politics. (M. J. Adler, Ed.). New York, NY: Macmillan. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6595607

Maritain, J. (1942a). The conquest of freedom. In Freedom, its meaning. (R.N Ashen, Ed.). London: George Allen and Unwin.

Maritain, J. (1942b). Les Droits de L'Homme et La Loi Naturelle. New York: Editions de la Maison Francaise Inc. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98046043

Maritain, J. (1945). A preface to metaphysics: Seven lectures on being. London: Sheed and Ward.

Maritain, J. (1947). La personne et le bien commun. Paris: Desclee De Brouwer.

Maritain, J. (1964). Moral philosophy: An historical and critical survey of the great systems, Volume 1. New York, NY: Scribner.

Maritain, J. (1971a). Freedom in the modern world. New York, NY: Gordian Press.

Maritain, J. (1971b). Education at the crossroads. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press.

Maritain, J. (1991). Religion et culture. New York, NY: French and European Publications.

Maritain, J. (2007). Bergsonian philosophy and Thomism. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Marx, K., Engles, F., & Tucker, R.C. (1978). The Marx-Engles reader. (2nd Ed). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Mau, R. Y. (1992). The validity and devolution of a concept: Student alienation. Adolescence, 27, 731-741.

Mayr (1968) ‘Causality’, In Sacramentum Mundi (K. Rahner, C. Ernst & K. Smyth, Eds.). New York: NY: Herder & Herder.

Menand, L. (1997). Pragmatism: A reader. New York, NY: Vintage. Merton, R. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Mirowsky, J. & Ross, C. E. (1986) Social pattern of distress. Annual Review of Sociology 12, pp. 23-45.

Mottaz, C. J. (1981). Some determinants of work alienation. The Sociological Quarterly, 22, 515-529.

Nair, N., and Vohra, N. (Developing a new measure of work alienation. Journal of Workplace Rights, 14(3). pp 293-309. Retrieved August 19, 2011, from http://baywood.metapress.com/index/K7TH72P74U156454.pdf

Nauta, R. & Derckx, L. (2007). Why sin?—A test and an exploration of the social and psychological context of resentment and desire. Pastoral Psychology 56 (2), 177-188. DOI: 10.1007/s11089-007-0097-7

Overend, T. (1975). Alienation: A conceptual analysis. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 35(3), 301-322. Parsons, T. (1991). Social system. London; Routledge.

Perlow, R. & Latham, L. L. (1993). The relationship between client abuse and locus of control and gender: A longitudinal study in mental retardation facilities. Journal of Applied Psychology, (78), 831–834 Plato (2003) The Republic. N.Y: Penguin.

Richert, R A. & Harris, P. L. (2008). Dualism revisited: Body vs. mind vs. soul. Journal of Cognition and Culture 8(1-2), pp. 99-115.

Ritzer, G. [Ed.] (2005) Encyclopedia of Social Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ritzer, G. & Goodman, D. J. (2004). Sociological theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Roberts, B. R. (1987). A confirmatiory factor-analytic model of alienation. Social Psychology Quarterly 50(4), 346-351.

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. New York, NY: Routledge.

Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80 (Whole No. 609).

Schmitt, R. (2003). Alienation and freedom. Cambridge, MA: Perseus. Seeman, M. (1959). On the meaning of alienation. American Sociological Review, 24(6), 783-791. Retrieved August 2, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2088565

Seeman, M. (1967). On the personal consequences of alienation in work. American Sociological Review, 32(2), 273-285. Retrieved on September 13, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.chapman.edu: 2048/stable/ pdfplus/2091817.pdf

Seeman, M. (1971). The urban alienations: Some dubious theses from Marx to Marcuse. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 19(2), 135-143. DOI: 10.1037/h0031270

Seeman, M. (1975). Alienation studies. Annual Review of Sociology, 1, 91- 123. Retreived August 2, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2946041

Seeman, M. (1983). Alienation motifs in contemporary theorizing: The hidden continuity of the classic themes. Social Psychology Quarterly 46(3), 171- 184. Retrieved September 6, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3033789

Southwell, P.L. (2008). The effect of political alienation on voter turnout, 1964- 2000. Journal of Political & Military Sociology 36(1), 131-145,

Spector, P. E. (1982). Behavior in organizations as a function of employees' locus of control. Psychological Bulletin, (91), 482–97.

Splett, J. (1969). Meaning. In Sacramentum Mundi (K. Rahner, C. Ernst & K. Smyth, Eds.). New York: NY: Herder & Herder.

Straeter, S. V. (2002). Body image and acculturation status, eating disorder symptomatology, psychopathology and self-esteem in Latina college students. Ph.D. dissertation, Alliant International University, San Diego, California. Retrieved July 20, 2011, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3065740).

Strumpf, S.E. (1971). Philosophy: History and problems. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Taylor, R. S. (2005). Kantian personal autonomy. Political Theory 33(5), 602- 628. Retrieved October 3, 2009 from http://www.jstor.org/ stable/ 30038446

Travis, R. (1986). On powerlessness and meaningless. The British Journal of Sociology 37(1), 61-73.

Vitz, P. (1977). Psychology as religion: The cult of self worship. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Weber, M. (1968). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, New York, NY: Bedminster Press.

Wilson, H.T.(2002). "Organizational theory." The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. William Outhwaite (Ed). Blackwell Reference Online. Retrieved August 29, 2011 from http://www.blackwellreference.com/ subscriber/tocnode? id=g9780631221647 chunk_g978063122164719 ss1-10

Winch, P. 1967: Authority. In Political Philosophy. A. Quinton (Ed.). London: Oxford University
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)