Kenneth A Schmidt


Most modern research in social alienation was based upon the factors identified by Seeman (1959, 1967, 1971, 1975, and 1983) as powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, estrangement, and cultural estrangement. Postmodernism reevaluated and redefined the factors within the postmodern paradigm. It was observed neither set of definitions included a spiritual component. It was proposed a redefinition of the self, as individual and personality, within the Neo-Thomist position of Jacques Maritain could assist researchers of social alienation in a deeper understanding of the alienational factors of powerlessness and meaninglessness.


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